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How 3D digital simulation can solve your cable problems

How 3D digital simulation can solve your cable problems

The study of electromagnetic coupling phenomena is of crucial importance in many fields of engineering, including electronics, telecommunications, energy, automotive and many others. Electromagnetic coupling refers to the interaction between electromagnetic fields emitted by different components or systems, which can lead to undesirable effects such as interference, disturbance, or performance degradation.
In this perspective, 3D numerical simulation is an essential tool for studying and assessing the various types of electromagnetic coupling. This approach enables detailed analysis of electromagnetic interactions in complex and varied environments, providing insight into phenomena that are often difficult to grasp using analytical or experimental methods alone.
The aim of our studies is to explore different types of electromagnetic coupling using 3D numerical simulations: crosstalk coupling and field-to-wire coupling.

Crosstalk occurs when an electric signal propagates along one conductor (called a disturbing cable) and induces an unwanted signal on an adjacent conductor (called a victim cable). This phenomenon is common in multi-conductor cables and can lead to electromagnetic interference between the different conductors.
Numerical simulations aim to quantify the level of crosstalk between conductors, identify areas at risk of interference and explore ways of reducing crosstalk coupling, for example by altering the distance between conductors or using appropriate shielding techniques.

Figure 1: Crosstalk representation

Case study 2: Field-to-Wire Coupling

Field-to-cable coupling occurs when external electromagnetic fields induce currents or voltages in exposed cables, which can lead to interference or damage to electronic systems.
Numerical simulations help us to understand how cables react to external electromagnetic fields, to identify areas susceptible to interference, and to explore ways of protecting cables from unwanted effects, for example by using suitable shielding techniques or modifying cable routing to minimize coupling.

Figure 2: Field/Cable coupling representation

Methodology

The main methodological steps are carried out (modeling of structures and cables, definition of sources (voltage/current or wave), parameterization of observables, etc.), enabling concrete cases to be launched using the co-simulation of 3D solvers and circuit simulators from standard tools on the market.

Figure 3: Ethernet cable model (twisted pair)
Figure 4: Schematic diagram of crosstalk coupling on a coaxial cable

Conclusion

In conclusion, these studies aim to provide in-depth insight into the phenomena of electromagnetic coupling through 3D numerical simulations, thus enabling a better understanding of these complex interactions and the development of effective solutions to guarantee optimum performance and adequate electromagnetic compatibility in various engineering applications.

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